1960. The paper, ‘Cyborgs and Space’ by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline. Scientists at Rockford State Hospital, New York during a time when Space travel was the focus of America. The race to get to the moon. Shuttle launches live on TV. Science in the States was driven by finding ways for space pilots to breathe with the assistance of machines, or regulate blood flow and countless other seemingly whacky ideas. Why not reengineer humans to fit the stars? A merger between human and machine.
‘The Cyborg deliberately incorporates exogenous components extending the self-regulating control function of the organism in order to adapt it to new environments’
2012. Think pacemaker, think hearing aid, think motorised wheelchairs . . .